Georges Braque

(13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963)

A major 20th-century French paintercollagistdraughtsmanprintmaker, and sculptor. His most important contributions to the history of art were in his alliance with Fauvism from 1906, and the role he played in the development of Cubism

Braque’s work between 1908 and 1912 is closely associated with that of his colleague Pablo Picasso. Their respective Cubist works were indistinguishable for many years, yet the quiet nature of Braque was partially eclipsed by the fame and notoriety of Picasso.


Pablo Picasso & George Braque widely considered it’s ‘founders’

Pablo Picasso – Demoiselles d’Avignon, 1907


Lead on to other artists exploring this style: Braque, Juan Gris, Robert Delaunay, Marcel Duchamp, Fernand Leger

Braque – Nude descending a staircase, 1912



Braque’s earliest works were impressionistic, but after seeing the work exhibited by the artistic group known as the “Fauves” (Beasts) in 1905, he adopted a Fauvist style. The Fauves, a group that included Henri Matisse and André Derain among others, used brilliant colors to represent emotional response.

In May 1907, he successfully exhibited works of the Fauve style in the Salon des Indépendants. The same year, Braque’s style began a slow evolution as he became influenced by Paul Cézanne who had died in 1906 and whose works were exhibited in Paris for the first time in a large-scale, museum-like retrospective in September 1907. The 1907 Cézanne retrospective at the Salon d’Automne greatly affected the avant-garde artists of Paris, resulting in the advent of Cubism.

The things that Picasso and I said to one another during those years will never be said again, and even if they were, no one would understand them anymore. It was like being roped together on a mountain.

— Georges Braque
External Links:

Pablo Picasso

(25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973)

Spanish painter, sculptor, printmakerceramiciststage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of the co-invention of collagethe co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore.

Picasso and Cubism

Picasso, Femme a la mandoline, 1910


  • Girl with a mandalin
  • Shading for depth
  • No detail in expression
  • Proportion
  • Distorted with lines and cut outs
  • Limited colour – pastel
  • Made with lines and boxy shapes apart from hair and mandalin
  • Sculptural
  • Smooth

Picasso, Glass and a Bottle of Bass, 1914


  • Picture within painting
  • Vibrant colours
  • Display
  • Unknown object centred – abstract, domestic setting
  • Multiple patterns – wallpaper
  • Contrast between detail and simple drawing
  • Named
  • Collage feel

Picasso, The Accordionist, 1911


  • Messy
  • Distorted with lines and cut outs
  • Hard to depict an image
  • Limited colour
  • Arcs hidden and overruled by harsh, deep, straight lines
  • Grainy, dense, heavy
  • Ordered chaos

Autonomous Art:

Art that comment on itself, without referencing social or political values

Based on a formalist analysis

Figurative Art – (Gustave Caillebotte, Les Raboteurs de parquet, 1875)

Abstract Art: retinal art – (Sonia Delaunay, Rhythme, 1938) 

Blue and Rose Period:

The Old Guitarist, 1903

Family of Saltimbanques, 1905


Pablo Picasso & George Braque widely considered it’s ‘founders’

Demoiselles d’Avignon, 1907

Lead on to other artists exploring this style: Braque, Juan Gris, Robert Delaunay, Marcel Duchamp, Fernand Leger

Braque – Nude descending a staircase, 1912

Cubist Aesthetics:

  • Multiple Perspectives
  • No central vanishing point
  • Limited colour palette
  • Ambiguity of form
  • Traditional subject matter
  • Condensing time and space


Claude Monet, Impression Sunrise, 1871

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Dance at the Moulin de la Galette, 1876

Post- Impressionism:

Vincent Van Gogh, Wheat Field with Crows, 1890

Henri Matisse, The Dance, 1910

Georges Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, 1886

Paul Cezanne:

Mont Sainte-Victoire

Still Life with Apples



New Materials- High Vs Low: Picasso, Au Bon Marche, 1912


Labels, stolen wallpaper, left overs

  • Edwards, ‘Cubist Collage’, P.215
  • TJ Clarke, Picasso and Truth, 2013

Max Neuhaus

(August 9, 1939 – September 3, 2009)

American classical musician and artist who was a noted interpreter of the experimental percussion music in the 1960s. He later created numerous permanent sound installations as “sound sculptures” of contemporary art.

Neuhaus was known for his interpretations of experimental percussion music. He gave performances of pieces by composers such as John CageKarlheinz Stockhausen and Pierre Boulez in numerous music halls, including a 1964 performance in Carnegie Hall.


One piece called “Times Square” was built in 1977 beneath a grate on a traffic island in Manhattan where pedestrians would be “enveloped by a deeply resonant and mildly undulating drone, its tone suggestive of low-pitched chimes or church bells.”


Other sculptural works included penny whistles heard underwater in swimming pools, electronic sounds within an arboretum and the modified sounds of listeners whistling tunes over public radio.

Permanent works by Neuhaus are found in locations in Houston; Stommeln, Germany; Promenade du Pin, Geneva, Switzerland; and the Dia:Beacon museum in Beacon, New York

External Links:

Pauline Oliveros

(May 30, 1932 – November 24, 2016)

American composeraccordionist and a central figure in the development of experimental and post-war electronic art music

Oliveros authored books, formulated new music theories, and investigated new ways to focus attention on music including her concepts of “Deep Listening” and “sonic awareness“. She was an Eyebeam resident.

In 1988, as a result of descending 14 feet into an underground cistern to make a recording, Oliveros coined the term “Deep Listening“, a pun that has blossomed into “an aesthetic based upon principles of improvisation, electronic music, ritual, teaching and meditation. This aesthetic is designed to inspire both trained and untrained performers to practice the art of listening and responding to environmental conditions in solo and ensemble situations”.


The Deep Listening Band, which included Oliveros, David Gamper (1947–2011) and Stuart Dempster, specializes in performing and recording in resonant or reverberant spaces such as caves, cathedrals and huge underground cisterns.



In Memoriam

Listening for Pauline (In Memoriam: Pauline Oliveros 1932–2016) – Walker Art Center

Pauline Oliveros + Musiques Nouvelles: Four Meditations / Sound Geometries – Chain DLK, by Vito Camarretta>

Remembering Pauline Oliveros – CBC Music


Thread Studies

This is some experimentation during a Portaiture project where I discovered different ways to portray contours on the face using a variety of methods. I used both threads and fineliner pens to create these effects and positions them in a way which complimented the face.
Through the duration of the project, I used colour and tone to define the contours of the face and tried to represent this here also.
I enjoyed creating these peices as it was a new way of working and allowed me to mix media I usually wouldnt; this discovery has lead me to a decision that I would like to take it further into another art piece on a larger scale. I would want to experiment with the mixed media one which incorperates both the fineliner and threads as I feel this is the strongest, most interesting of the 4.

berry trolley

This is a spread of 2 A3 pieces created with the technique of etching and incorperates real fruit juices and ink.
The reason for my art was contributing to the idea of the waste of food from us as a culture and how it’s an ongoing problem which needs to be fixed, worldwide.
This is created by using inks to etching into the A3 cartridge paper and calico fabric whilst then adding  real fruit juices and bits as an explosion to represent the destruction of food of which we buy and how this is a pointless routine.
These pieces (being a part of my project) have a background meaning and inspiratioon behind them, also.
I watched a BBC1 documentry called: Hugh’s War on Waste. This is the stepping stone of which I used to influence my art. The documentry puts into persepective about how much we waste, why we are doing it and how we need to stop it; I wanted to explore ways in which I could present this inforamtion in art form- this meant both in stats, imagery and literal sense.
I really enjoy both these pieces I created but I would like to expand these, to create a multitude of them as I think they would work nicely as a collection.

Lady’s Back

I had learnt a lot whilst taking my Life Drawing class and wanted to extend my learning in my spare time. After class I would experiment with papers and textures of which I wouldn’t whilst I was there and to also try and help develop my discovery for my own style.

This is done on plastic sheets with a coloured tint and a black, thin marker pen.

These 2 sheets are layered on top of one and other the incorporate the outline and shadows from the mark making. I enjoy these pieces both apart and together as it shows simplicity but also detail; I also found that I very much enjoyed working with marker and felt tips as a result of this piece.img_1914


These are a couple of a few bags I have designed and made for my current project of waste and food.
One is inspired by the artist John Chirstie, who is a clear influence on style, and presents the natural colours and beauty of characteristics in grown, untampered food.
The other of an original idea of how we ruin and tear apart what is perfectly good; the bags I create have a meaning whether it be through typography or imagery.
These are both done with ‘Inktense’ Ink pencils which are activiated by water and stain the fabric to ensure the safety of what I paint and draw with them.
I enjoy coming up with these ideas and creating them on canvas bags which can be used and I could potentially use a target market to create a little profit for my art whilst also raising awareness.

Biro Studies

These are some organised studies where I used brio pen to create shadows and highlights across peices of home grown fruit and veg and store bought, also. I assembled the food this way to create a different aproach to observational drawings; this made it interesting to both draw and look at.

I really like these pieces and feel this is building my skills and current project up with detailed drawings and practise on skill before experiments.